Types of Discrimination

Blatant Discrimination

Discrimination that consists of unequal and harmful treatment that is typically intentional, quite visible, and easily documented.

Covert Discrimination

Unequal and harmful treatment that is hidden, purposeful, and, often, maliciously motivated and stems from conscious attempts to assure failure.

Cultural Discrimination

Within a culture, one group retains the power to define cultural values as well as the form those values should take by maintaining dominance over other groups by rewarding those values that correspond to its views and punishing those values that do not by marginalizing minority ethnic groups and their cultural heritage. As a result, the characteristics and contributions of the dominant group are valued over those of minority or ethnic groups.

Institutionalized Discrimination

The unjust and discriminatory mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals by organizations such as governments and corporations, financial institutions (e.g., banks, investment firms, money markets), public institutions (e.g., schools, police forces, healthcare centers), and other societal entities.

Interpersonal Discrimination

A person treating another unfairly because of the person’s group membership resulting from stereotypic beliefs, evaluations of groups.

Organizational Discrimination

The manifestation of institutional discrimination in the context of a particular organization.

Source: Whitley, B. E. Jr. & Kite, M. E (2010). The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth