The notion of intersectionality was initially coined in the writings of feminists of color and critical race theorists, who challenged the belief of a widely accepted gendered experience and argued that the experiences of women of colors were also shaped by other social factors, such as race and class (Collins, 1990; Davis, 1981). Since then, intersectionality has been developed through different lenses to address its engagements in theoretical paradigm and research framework. Intersectionality, as a theory and methodology, conceptualizes the relation between forms of discrimination and systems of oppression (e.g., sexism, racism, classism, heterosexism, and transphobia) which construct our multiple identities and interact to mold individuals' lived experiences (Crenshaw, 1993; Hurtado, 1996; McCall, 2005). As a framework for research analysis, intersectionality offers ways to investigate intersectional dynamics and understand the complex connections permeating in social contextualization (Cole, 2009).
Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment.
Angela, D. (1981). Women, Race and Class. New York: Randon House.
Crenshaw, K. (1993). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.
Hurtado, A. (1996). The color of privilege: Three blasphemies on race and feminism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 30(3), 1771–1800.
Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist, 64, 170–180.